The Afrakaltural Symposium



Martial Knowledge

What is Martial Knowledge?

The strategic use of Afrakan history, culture and psychology to combat anti-Afrakan sentiment in order to build unambiguous ideologies for development.

Why martial knowledge?

Because Afrakans are engaged in the hostilities of intellectual warfare and cultural combat which requires comprehensive understanding of the successful undertakings of Afrakans.



Afraka has never been conquered. I repeat, Afraka has never been conquered. Kemet may have been invaded, Azania may have been colonized. The Congo and Rwanda ravaged but Afraka has never been conquered. Individual kingdoms and societies may have been overwhelmed. Empires may have fallen, nations may have been transformed but Afraka has never been conquered.

Afrakan engagements for the maintenance/perpetuation of sovereignty and the reclamation of independence are evident in the successful military campaigns of...

Ethiopia - An Afrakan nation which was never colonized and which retained its sovereignty as a recognized independent country before, during and after European and Arab invasions of the continent.

Namibia - In 1966 South-West Africa People's Organisation's (SWAPO) military wing, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN),engaged in armed struggle for independence. Victory was achieved in 1988 when the Apartied government of South Africa was forced to end its occupation of Namibia.

Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands - Amílcar Cabral led the Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (its english translation African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde). PAIGC's guerrilla movement against the Portuguese colonialists, resulting in complete liberation, thus becoming one of most successful wars of independence in African history. (1961–74)

Angola - Here, the Portugese invaders were comfronted by the brilliant military strategist and stateswoman Queen Nzinga. She and her people were determined never to accept the Portugese conquest of their country. Nzinga formed an alliance with the the Afrakan society known as the Jaga. She trained and organized an army out of disparate elements and reinforced the alliance by marrying the Jaga chief.

Nzinga and her troops established bases in the mountainous regions of Matamba, there she established a resistance movement to repell the Portugese. Nzinga's guerilla warfare sucessfully resisted the Portugese army. She led her warriors into battle until she was well into her sixties. Never surrendering, she engaged in armed struggle against the Portugese until her death, at age eighty.

Haiti - In the 18th century known as the French colony Saint Dominigue on the island of Hispanola, witnessed Afrakan resistance to captivity and enslavement. The Afrakan known as Toussaint l’Overture, began fighting against the French on August 21, 1791. By 1792 his forces controlled a third of the island despite reinforcements from France.The Afrakans managed to stave off both the French and the British (who arrived in 1793 to conquer the colony, and withdrew in 1798 after a series of defeats by l’Overture’s forces).

By 1801 l’Overture expanded the revolution beyond Saint Dominigue, conquering the neighboring Spanish colony of Santo Domingo. After the capture of l’Overture by the French the Afrakan Jean-Jacques Dessalines led the Afrakan revolutionaries against the French at the Battle of Vertieres on November 18, 1803. It was here that Dessalines and his army crushed the French forces. On January 1, 1804, Dessalines declared the sovereignty of the colony and renamed it Haiti, thus emerging a new Afrakan republic. The Haitian Revolution is one of the largest and most successful Afrakan rebellions against European enslavement in the western hemisphere.

Quilombos, Mocambos, Palenques and Maroons - were autonomous societies formed by self liberating Afrakans in South and Latin America and having some venture as far as the southern territories of the United States of America. Established almost concurrent with the captivity and enslavement of Afrakans by European colonialist during the 1500s they have managed to not only survive but thrive to such a degree that as of 1988 their Afrakanity is recognized as a distinct identity at the same level of the Indigenous peoples of South America.

Quilombo dos Palmares, a massive self-sustaining republic, was the most famous of these African settlements. It showcased Afrakan resistance in three ways: autonomous community development, seizing power through self determination and armed resistance. Occupying an area the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Bahia, Palmares had a population of over 30,000. Its leaders were Ganga Zumba, Zumbi and warrior cheiftess Dendara. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonists, the warriors of Palmares were experts in guerilla warfare and capoeira, a martial arts form that was brought to and enhanced in Brazil by Afrakans. Despite constant seiges this community maintained itself for over a century.

Igbo Women's War - Afrakans engaged local movements to combat European colonialism. The 1929 Igbo Women's War aka the Aba Women's Revolt against the British in southeastern Nigeria is an excellent example. Composed entirely of rural women this was the only mass protest to take place in Nigeria prior to the years leading to independence in 1960.

These Afrakan women attacked British owned businesses and Barclays Bank. They broke into prisons and released the incarcerated. They also attacked traditional courts if they were run by colonial officials, burning many of them to the ground. The Igbo Women's War is seen as the first major successful challenge to British authority in Nigeria and in West Africa during the European colonial period.

"Our premise is simply that [Afraka] is not only the root of humanity's phylogenetic tree, but [Afraka] is the root of humanity's linguistic tree, its cultural-civilizational tree, its techno-scientific and agricultural tree, and its spiritual-cosmological and philosophical (deep thought) tree; [Afraka] is the root and primal expression of the world."

-Kwame Agyei and Akua Nson Akoto



Global Influence

The Anu are the first and oldest Afrakan beings with archeological science dating them at 195,000 years of age. Their immediate descendents the Asmau were ancient enough and so awe inspiring as to be cast as the mythical Titans, fore parents of the Greek gods of Olympus. Next on the scene Nubau along with their offspring the Kushau and Kamau gave the world its first high culture culminating in the advanced civilization of Kemit. The Indu Kushau built civilizations stretching from what is now called Pakistan and India. The Zanjau lived in Iraq and Iran and resisted all attempts at captivity and enslavement. In China from 1500 to 1000 BC. the Kushau had civilizations and were referred to as the Shi Dynasty by Chinese anthropologist. The Xiu built civilizations in north and south America. The Mayans used the Kushau term “Tul Tul Xui” meaning supporters or teachers of the high order in reference and reverence to these Afrakans. The Mayans and Aztecs marveled at the Mers (pyramids) and huge carved stone portraits. Afrakanity is ubiquitous.

Homecoming

In 1811, Paul Cuffee, a free man of Afrakan and Wampanoag descent who possessed wealth and influence in the USA explored the premise of former Afrakan captives in the USA returning to their native land. He was convinced that neccessities for the advancement of Afrakan people were not obtainable in America and decided Afrakan repatriation was the best option. He was able to transport thirty eight blacks to Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1815.

In the U.S.A., migration north for a better life and work eventually met with disillusionment. This and the frustration of trying to cope with the struggles of urban life set the scene for the Back-to-Africa Movement of the 1920s, initiated by Marcus Garvey.

The Saros and Amaros were self liberating Afrakans who migrated back to Afraka and settled in Nigeria in the 1830s. The Saros were originally from Sierra Leone and the Amaros, often referred to as Nago were of Yoruba ethnicity originally from Nigeria. As captives these Afrakans were brought to Brazil and Cuba to labor on the sugar plantations. Though from varying ethnic groups they related to one another as equals with a common enemy and a unifying objective. Saros and Amaros also settled in Ghana and other West Afrakan countries. Liberated Afrakans began returning to Afraka whenever the opportunity presented itself.

Afrakan Autonomy in Action

Many captured Afrakans brought with them the skills used in the process of self liberation. Those from the Kingdom of the Kongo, for example, having been affected by continuous internal strife had learned how to mobilize troops and whole communities, evacuate an area and re-situate in a protected location. The skill set of the self liberating Afrakan also included martial arts such as Mentu, Dambe and Engolo. All used to resist captivity, enslavement and oppression.

Afrakans in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America had multiple means of fighting captivity and resisting enslavement. A sampling of those with exceptional courage is as follows: Captain Lemba in the Dominican Republic, Yanga in Mexico, King Zumbi in Brazil, King Benkos Bioho in Columbia, King Bayano in Panama, Queen Grandy Nanny and Captain Kojo in Jamaica, King Miguel Guacamaya in Venezuela, Makandal and Boukman in Haiti and John Horse (aka Juan Caballo or Gopher John) in the United States and Mexico.

Self liberating Afrakans established thousands of communities in the Americas. A cursory exploration would reveal Maroon societies in the Cuban province of Pinar del Río and the Palenques in Cuba itself. Maranhão in northern Brazil, still possessing over 400 Quilombos. The Ndyuka, Saramaka, Matawai, Aluku (Boni), Paramaka, and Kwinti in Suriname and French Guiana South America.The Maroon republic in Vera Cruz Mexico.

Sankara and the rise of Burkina Faso. Sankara took power from his country’s corrupt military dictatorship in 1984. He renamed the Upper Volta, Burkina Faso, which translates as “Land of Upright People.” Sankara iniated new reforms calling for the cancellation of Afraka’s debt to international banks and her former colonizers. He encouraged economic autonomy to the point of shunning World Bank loans. Sankara promoted local food and textile production insisting that his country need not ever beg for what they could produce for themselves in abundance. Sankara had railways constructed and initiated the building of public housing.

Sankara made it illegal to pay tributes and perform obligatory labor to village leaders and did away with rural poll taxes. He touted male/female equality to the degree of outlawing female circumcision and polygamy. He discouraged the luxuries that came with government office accepting a meager salary and encouraged his colleagues to do the same. Sankara refused his picture being displayed in public buildings, and forbade the use of chauffeur-driven vehicles and first class airline tickets by his ministers and senior civil servants. He banned trade unions and political parties and continued engaging in actions that did not sit well with the big power interests of France, the United States of America and what was then the Soviet Union. Simply stated Sankara helped to define the standard for the modern Afrakan state.

The Campaign for African Community Self-Defense (CACSD) is an international campaign of the International People’s Democratic Uhuru Movement (InPDUM), which functions according to the Revolutionary National Democratic Program (RNDP) of InPDUM.The RNDP responds to the colonial conditions experienced by African people inside the U.S. and throughout North America, and recognizes that African people in North America and throughout the world are part of a dispersed African nation that must reunite with Africans on the continent in order to liberate Africa. The CACSD is designed to specifically defend the African community from all forms of colonial violence that African people suffer on a local, national and worldwide level.

Our Mothers Go To War. The West African nation of Dahomey during the 18th and 19th centuries was home to a legendary fighting force. This group of all female warriors was referred to as Mino, meaning "Our Mothers" in the Fon language. Initiation into the Mino meant harnessing one's aggessive character traits for the sole purpose of warfare. The Mino were highly disciplined and trained with intense physical exercises and martial arts.

During their tenure of service members did not marry or have children.These regiments enjoyed high social status and were viewed as sacred due to their connection with the Vodun. By the 1840s their ranks had swollen to over 6000 professional troops armed with rifles, machetes and batons. All units were under female command. These women soldiers known for decapitating their enemies engaged and defeated French invaders during the Franco-Dahomean War.

Liberation at Sea

Afrakans take control of slave ships. While docked in the Sierra Leone River the slaving vessel Jolly Batchelor was attacked and taken by Afrakans. During the fighting, the captain and his men were killed. The Afrakans stripped the vessel of its rigging and sails, freed those Afrakans in the cargo hold, and then destroyed the ship.

The slave ship Little George left the Coast of Guinea en route to Rhode Island with 96 captive Afrakans. Just days into the voyage, several Afrakans broke their bonds and killed the guards who were on duty. The captain and crew were taken prisoner. The Afrakans piloted the ship back to the Sierra Leone River. After making it to shore, the Africans abandoned the ship and its crew.

Captive Afrakans on board a Rhode Island ship commanded by Captain Beers, liberated themselves off the coast of Ghana. They killed the captain and all the crew, except two crew members, who swam ashore and lived to tell the tale. What became of the vessel and the Afrakans is not known.

Afrakans took the slave ship captained by John Major while off the coast of Guinea killing captain and crew and seizing the cargo.

In 1721, eight Afrakan captives held on board the slave ship Henry of London freed themselves and fought the 50-man crew for control of the ship.

In 1735, captured Afrakans aboard the ship Dolphin of London revolted. Greatly outnumbered they made their way to the gun-powder room and blew up the ship killing themselves and the crew.

While the Amistad and the Creole are arguably the most well known resistance movements occurrence on slaving vessels, conservative estimates state that more than 500 incidents of Afrakans liberating themselves at sea have occurred. Evidence also states that both Afrakan males and females led these rebellions.

Offensive Divination

The advance science of receiving counsel and wise instruction through the process of  Oracular Divination has been used martially by Afrakans as well. The subversive knowledge gained by direct communication with the deities and ancestors aided in the planning and execution of the many successful revolts and even in the development of autonomous communities.

By communing with deities and ancestors our fore-parents were given invaluable insight and knowledge about the different forms of vegetation; such as herbs that could be used to induce unconsciousness, memory loss, paralysis, pain and death; as well as other natural resources they could employ as weapons against their oppressors. This could almost be seen as biological warfare induced by spiritual intel.

The kinds of attacks ranged from poisoning their oppressors food and water supply, manipulating bacterial and viral agents, to all out guerrilla warfare. Through divination our fore-parents were able stay steps ahead of hunting parties and slavers and thus avoid capture. Divination secured the time and place to best raid the oppressor for supplies; establish settlements that would mature into autonomous societies and more importantly when to liberate fellow Afrakans. Divination raised the bar of martial engagements.

Martial Arts

Secret martial arts societies like the Medjay of ancient Kemet, and the Si'Mo of West Afraka demonstrated such fighting skills they became legendary throughout the Afrakan continent. Many warrior societies littered the Afrakan continent. The Bambara and Mandika of west Afraka, the east Afrakan Maasi and the Zulu of southern Afraka are further examples. The ancient nations of the Zhing and Ta'Khui were impressive martial empires of the Great Lake region of Lake N'Wanza who elevated warfare to a martial art.

The Soninke nation of West Afraka were master iron smelters. They not only perfected sword fighting but created their own unique style. The Soninke were not conquered or successfully invaded during both European and Arab sieges from 300 AD to 1000 AD.

The martially skilled Matamba utterly crushed the Portuguese who attempted to enslave them. Their defeat was so complete, so devastating that the Portuguese petitioned for a peace treaty in 1656 AD.


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